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Hausa fulani sex

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PDF | On Jan 1,SS Adebisi and others published Sex identification Hausa fulani sex the skull of the Hausa/Fulani in Northern Nigeria. woodporn.best hausa videos, free sex videos.

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k 41% 11min - p. Hausa Romance with a shy lady. M 24%. Free Hausa fulani sex Sex XXX Videos, Sex Movies. Free Porn Tube: Download Hausa Sex sex videos or stream mp4 porn. Pregnant woman who presented at the ANC for the first time, were admitted into the study.

The tripartite study included i clinical examination ii laboratory investigation for Bacterial vaginosis and iii questionnaire administration to all eligible patients. The study population was pregnant women who agreed to participate in Hausa fulani sex study and who were residing in Zaria City in Kaduna State, one of the five divisions of the Northwest geo-political zone in Nigeria.

The Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, who dominate most parts of these states, are mostly traders, herdsmen and farmers, though Hausa fulani sex work in government offices as administrators.

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Each consecutive pregnant woman who were attending their first ANC into the study was recruited into the study. Inclusion criteria were then i attending ANC for the first time ii resides in Zaria and not just visiting iii black indigenous Nigerian iv willing to participate in the study.

The exclusion criteria were i those with severe systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure demonstrated kidney diseases ii presence of uterine anomaly and placenta abruption and cervical incompetence iii multiple pregnancy iv antibiotic Hausa fulani sex two weeks prior to study.

The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current Hausa fulani sex.

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At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the Hausa fulani sex, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate. It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them.

Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory analysis from each pregnant woman in a private, well-lit and cool consulting room. The porn Free italian questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa Hausa fulani sex and back into English language.

Hausa fulani sex practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix.

The pH of vaginal secretion was Hausa fulani sex using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina.

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This wet smear of vaginal Hausa fulani sex from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending Hausa fulani sex.

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These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main Hausa fulani sex test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly.

Bbw sexi Watch Kay parker private teacher Video Penny naked. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore vaginal douching practices among a cohort of pregnant women in Nigeria. Information gather can help as in planning a more robust study on douching and its perceived association with personal hygiene, genital infection and other gynecological and obstetric pathologies not only in pregnancy but prior to or after a woman has delivered. Between 40 and 60 women were usually seen at ANC where pregnancies were not only monitored for any present or impending anomaly but the pregnant women were also screened for high blood pressure, proteinuria and infections such as HIV. In the 3-month period of April and June of , a total of pregnant women consulting for the first time were seen at this ANC and, in addition to the regular clinical examinations, were also screened for bacterial vaginosis. In addition, questionnaires were served to these pregnant women to assess douching practices among this specific ethnic group. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Pregnant woman who presented at the ANC for the first time, were admitted into the study. The tripartite study included i clinical examination ii laboratory investigation for Bacterial vaginosis and iii questionnaire administration to all eligible patients. The study population was pregnant women who agreed to participate in the study and who were residing in Zaria City in Kaduna State, one of the five divisions of the Northwest geo-political zone in Nigeria. The Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, who dominate most parts of these states, are mostly traders, herdsmen and farmers, though some work in government offices as administrators. Each consecutive pregnant woman who were attending their first ANC into the study was recruited into the study. Inclusion criteria were then i attending ANC for the first time ii resides in Zaria and not just visiting iii black indigenous Nigerian iv willing to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria were i those with severe systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure demonstrated kidney diseases ii presence of uterine anomaly and placenta abruption and cervical incompetence iii multiple pregnancy iv antibiotic consumption two weeks prior to study. The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current pregnancy. At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the study, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate. It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them. Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory analysis from each pregnant woman in a private, well-lit and cool consulting room. The structured questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa language and back into English language. Douching practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina. This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study. Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method of douching , Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8. Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing , Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1. Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women. However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically. Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche. Douching may have started early in life while mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age but for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used. It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of African descent in general, by a third of women in the USA [ 34 , 35 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ]. Very few other studies reported douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell. It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients. Plain water is not always free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching was found to be more common. He later told me that I would need to make a statement. Alhaji hit me on the back and called me a fool in Hausa. Why do you think the policeman asked you to lie against his neighbour? They wanted me to lie that it was generator fume that made us sick. First, I was the only one and later, I heard that Joy died. When we got to the hospital, Alhaji was saying it was generator fume that made me sick, but the doctor said there was nothing like that. He said I had malaria. Do you remember eating or drinking anything before you, too, became sick? I ate rice in the morning on that day. I was cooking spaghetti for lunch when I became dizzy. But I remember that I was given an injection by nurse Gift when my private part was itching a day before. I had a drug I used to take for toilet infection, so the nurse offered to give me injection. She wanted to give me a second one, but I declined. She gave me the injection on a Tuesday. It was the next day I felt sick and was taken to the hospital. They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. He gives them money after sleeping with them. They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him so he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts. All the girls were all naked including him. Some married men always come too. Sometimes, he shares bags of rice to them. Some of them come from Gwagwa and Nyanya. All I did was to serve them food when they visited. Initially, I was working with a house help, Faith, but he sacked her. The girl lived in Agura. One day, when she was going home, he offered her a lift and she refused to enter his car because the residents see Alhaji as an evil person. Are you aware if Alhaji did anything to Joy the day she slept in his house? But the day she came, I saw her inserting something into her private part, something that looked like a cotton ball. I later learnt that it was nurse Gift that asked her to do a swab for medical test. One Baba was coming to the house and he would write something like Arabic. The first day she slept there was the day she died. Alhaji called her that I was sick and that she should come and take me to the hospital. After she assisted me in the hospital, she was asked to sleep over because it was late. I usually go home around 7pm every day. We were four that slept in the house that night. The house is a three-bedroom apartment..

Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables Hausa fulani sex constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study.

Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had Hausa fulani sex highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using article source of the hand to insert plain Hausa fulani sex was the most common method of douching Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8.

So, he took me to his house on Friday, October 7, and he asked me to resume duty on Saturday.

Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing Click, those who douched before sex were only 1.

Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial Hausa fulani sex. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4.

Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was here prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women Hausa fulani sex 39 Huge titted college teacher Hausa fulani sex Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women.

However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching Hausa fulani sex also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age Hausa fulani sex depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically.

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Hausa fulani sex douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious.

Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche.

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Douching may Hausa fulani sex started early in life Hausa fulani sex mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age source for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used.

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It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among learn more here Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of Hausa fulani sex descent in general, by a third of women in the Hausa fulani sex [ 3435 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ].

Very few other studies Hausa fulani sex douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell.

It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients.

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Plain water is not Hausa fulani sex free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching Hausa fulani sex found to be more common.

Selfmedication is rampant in Nigeria [ 37 ] and douching may be the first step in home-management of an impending serious vaginal infection prior to clinic attendance.

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Douching was observed to be less common before Hausa fulani sex after sexual intercourse, a finding in line with the suggestion that frequent douching is significantly more associated with douching after sex [ 38 ]. This may lend credence to the notion of douching for cleanliness.

It is surprising that method of douching also differed by educational status.

Douching was observed more among women with no formal education or Hausa fulani sex those with only primary education. This agrees with other studies that douching is more prevalent among females of low educational [ 1539 ] and socioeconomic status [ 7 ].

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They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. Hausa fulani sex gives them money after sleeping with them.

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They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him Hausa fulani sex he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts.

All the girls were all naked including him. Some married men always come too. Sometimes, he shares bags of rice to them. Some of them come from Gwagwa and Nyanya. All I did was to serve them food when they visited. Initially, I was working with a Hausa fulani sex help, Faith, but he sacked her. The girl lived in Agura. One day, when she was going home, he offered her a lift and she refused to enter his car because the click here see Alhaji Hausa fulani sex an evil person.

Are you aware if Alhaji did anything to Joy the day she slept in his house?

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    • Background: The Hausa / Fulani is one of the major races in Nigeria, with scanty craniometrical records for sex identification, a useful resource in forensic study. PDF | On Jan 1, , SS Adebisi and others published Sex identification from the skull of the Hausa/Fulani in Northern Nigeria. woodporn.best hausa videos, free sex videos. Cute hausa girl with big ass loves to fuck. k 41% 11min - p. Hausa Romance with a shy lady. M 24%.

But the day she came, I saw her inserting something into her private part, something that looked like a Hausa fulani sex ball. I later learnt that it was nurse Gift that asked her to do a swab for medical test. One Baba was coming to the house and he would write something like Arabic. The first day she slept there was the day she Hausa fulani sex. Alhaji called her that I was sick and that she should come and take me to the hospital. After she assisted me in the hospital, she was asked to sleep over because it was late.

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I usually go home around 7pm every day. We were four that slept in the house that night. The house is a three-bedroom apartment.

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Anytime he visited, Alhaji would offer him suya and wine. Sometimes, Alhaji would ask me Hausa fulani sex fry meat for the DPO. Did Adamu ever attempt to have sex with you? Yes, but I refused. He was telling me to come into his room and I said for what?

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Hausa fulani sex said were those entering his room not my mates. I said you called me your daughter, yet you are pestering me for sex. He persisted. But there was a day he asked me again and the nurse knocked at the door, he then left me.

All rights reserved. This material, and other digital content on this website, may not be reproduced, published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or in part without prior express written permission from PUNCH. Skip to content. Who are you? I am Victoria Ezekiel.

White Ghetto Girl Street Whore. Hausa fulani sex date: November 07, ; Accepted date: November 24, ; Published date: December 05, Ajayi V, Afolabi BM. Transl Biomed.

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The objective of this Hausa fulani sex was to examine patterns of douching practices and their association to vaginal infection among Hausa-Fulani pregnant women in Zaria, Northwest Nigeria. Study design: This health facility-based study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation, with laboratory analysis for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal flora.

Of participants, Commonly identified methods of douching were using hand to insert plain water Frequent douching was associated with douching during bathing Douching during bathing and Hausa fulani sex sexual intercourse were more prevalent among subjects aged Bacterial vaginosis positive women aged years go here The practice of douching was common among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in Hausa fulani sex.

Further studies are desirable to confirm douching practices and various vaginal pathology for effective control, education, and management of female genital tract. Douching, or the process of applying liquid or semi-liquid, powdery or herbal substances into the vagina for various reasons may have been an age-old practice in many cultures [ 1 ].

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Douching probably originated from Hausa fulani sex time when the vagina was regarded as unclean and women menstrual period was erroneously viewed as a filthy process. Like any other orifice of the body such as the eyes, ears, mouth, nose or more info, the vagina also possesses natural systems to keep itself healthy. Just like the eyes secrete tears from lacrimal glands, the ears produce wax, the nostrils produce mucous and the mouth produces saliva, the vaginal produces its own organic secretions that are expected to kept it Hausa fulani sex.

It also has its own acid pH of 3 produced by glycogen degradation to lactic acid Hausa fulani sex vaginal epithelial cells functioning as a defense mechanism against invading pathogens. The surfaces of vaginal walls, which are usually moist, are easily separable due to lubrication by about 1 ml of basal vaginal fluid BVF.

Sources of BVF which collect in the vagina Hausa fulani sex from the peritoneal fluid, fluid from the entire uterine system which includes the follicles, the fallopian tubes, the Hausa fulani sex itself, the cervix and the vaginal secretion. Surveys have shown that douching practice was common in the United States [ 45 ] Martino, et al. One study in Turkey found that many women who practiced vaginal douching believed in its health benefits [ 8 ].

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Another study reported age, religion, place of residence, and poverty influence behavioral attitudes towards douching Hausa fulani sex that most women who practiced douching alleged it to be a routine conduct [ 9 ].

The belief of some adult women in the southeastern United States is that douching is necessary for good hygiene [ Hausa fulani sex ]. Numerous research studies confirm that women of African- American ancestry douche more than others [ 10 - 12 ].

Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal douching are both reported to be more common in African-American and Caribbean than white women [ 13 ]. Surveys of adolescents and adults who douche reveal that women are more likely to douche if they have a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases STDsincluding Hausa fulani sex and herpes simplex type 2 infection [ 14 - 17 ].

While various studies associate douching with various sexually and non-sexually transmitted infections of the genital tract such as Bacterial vaginosis [ 18 ], Chlamydia trachomatis [ 19 ], pelvic inflammatory disease [ 20 ] and to gynecological pathologies such as endometriosis and upper genital tract infection [ 21 ], a study actually documented a beneficial effect of douching in prevention against cervical cancer visit web page 22 ] and another contested any association between douching and pelvic inflammatory disease [ 23 ].

Apart from infertility and fibroid, vaginal indications such as abnormal odor, either accompanied by discharge Hausa fulani sex not, seem to be cause of gynaecological visits or referral [ 24 ]. Earlier Hausa fulani sex declared that the occasionally unpleasant odor from normal vaginal fluid [ 25 ] probably emanates from presence of infection with Bacterial vaginosis [ 13 ], though in some cases neither bacterial vaginosis nor any read more invading pathogen s are confirmed in symptomatic women [ 2627 ].

Invariably, the practice of douching has been associated with vaginal odor [ 28 ]. Although one study opined that vaginal douching and vaginal substance use is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa [ 29 ], douching practices among various ethnic groups in West Africa have not been widely studied hence scanty data on douching is available in Hausa fulani sex geographical location.

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Therefore, the main objective of this study was to explore vaginal douching practices among a cohort of pregnant women in Nigeria. Information gather can help as in planning a more robust study on douching and its perceived association with personal hygiene, genital infection and other gynecological and obstetric pathologies not only in pregnancy but prior to or after a woman has delivered.

Between 40 and 60 women were usually seen at ANC where pregnancies were not only monitored for any present or impending anomaly but the pregnant women were also screened for high blood pressure, proteinuria and infections such as HIV. In the 3-month period of April and June oflearn more here total of Hausa fulani sex women consulting for the first time were seen at this ANC and, in addition to the regular clinical examinations, were also screened Hausa fulani sex bacterial vaginosis.

In addition, questionnaires were served Hausa fulani sex these pregnant women to assess douching practices among this specific ethnic group.

Doctors Video Watch Actress bhuvaneswari hot Video Oiled nude. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Pregnant woman who presented at the ANC for the first time, were admitted into the study. The tripartite study included i clinical examination ii laboratory investigation for Bacterial vaginosis and iii questionnaire administration to all eligible patients. The study population was pregnant women who agreed to participate in the study and who were residing in Zaria City in Kaduna State, one of the five divisions of the Northwest geo-political zone in Nigeria. The Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, who dominate most parts of these states, are mostly traders, herdsmen and farmers, though some work in government offices as administrators. Each consecutive pregnant woman who were attending their first ANC into the study was recruited into the study. Inclusion criteria were then i attending ANC for the first time ii resides in Zaria and not just visiting iii black indigenous Nigerian iv willing to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria were i those with severe systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure demonstrated kidney diseases ii presence of uterine anomaly and placenta abruption and cervical incompetence iii multiple pregnancy iv antibiotic consumption two weeks prior to study. The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current pregnancy. At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the study, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate. It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them. Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory analysis from each pregnant woman in a private, well-lit and cool consulting room. The structured questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa language and back into English language. Douching practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina. This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study. Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method of douching , Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8. Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing , Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1. Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women. However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically. Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche. Douching may have started early in life while mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age but for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used. It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of African descent in general, by a third of women in the USA [ 34 , 35 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ]. Very few other studies reported douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell. It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients. Plain water is not always free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching was found to be more common. Selfmedication is rampant in Nigeria [ 37 ] and douching may be the first step in home-management of an impending serious vaginal infection prior to clinic attendance. Douching was observed to be less common before than after sexual intercourse, a finding in line with the suggestion that frequent douching is significantly more associated with douching after sex [ 38 ]. This may lend credence to the notion of douching for cleanliness. It is surprising that method of douching also differed by educational status. Douching was observed more among women with no formal education or among those with only primary education. She wanted to give me a second one, but I declined. She gave me the injection on a Tuesday. It was the next day I felt sick and was taken to the hospital. They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. He gives them money after sleeping with them. They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him so he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts. All the girls were all naked including him. Some married men always come too. Sometimes, he shares bags of rice to them. Some of them come from Gwagwa and Nyanya. All I did was to serve them food when they visited. Initially, I was working with a house help, Faith, but he sacked her. The girl lived in Agura. One day, when she was going home, he offered her a lift and she refused to enter his car because the residents see Alhaji as an evil person. Are you aware if Alhaji did anything to Joy the day she slept in his house? But the day she came, I saw her inserting something into her private part, something that looked like a cotton ball. I later learnt that it was nurse Gift that asked her to do a swab for medical test. One Baba was coming to the house and he would write something like Arabic. The first day she slept there was the day she died. Alhaji called her that I was sick and that she should come and take me to the hospital. After she assisted me in the hospital, she was asked to sleep over because it was late. I usually go home around 7pm every day. We were four that slept in the house that night. The house is a three-bedroom apartment. They were very close. Anytime he visited, Alhaji would offer him suya and wine. Sometimes, Alhaji would ask me to fry meat for the DPO. Did Adamu ever attempt to have sex with you? Yes, but I refused. He was telling me to come into his room and I said for what? He said were those entering his room not my mates. I said you called me your daughter, yet you are pestering me for sex. He persisted. But there was a day he asked me again and the nurse knocked at the door, he then left me. All rights reserved. This material, and other digital content on this website, may not be reproduced, published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or in part without prior express written permission from PUNCH..

The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Pregnant woman who presented at the ANC for the first time, were admitted into the study.

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The tripartite study included i clinical examination ii laboratory investigation for Bacterial vaginosis and iii questionnaire administration to all eligible patients.

The study population was pregnant women who agreed to participate in the Hausa fulani sex and who were residing in Zaria City in Kaduna State, one of the five divisions of the Northwest geo-political zone in Nigeria. The Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, who dominate most parts of these states, are mostly traders, herdsmen Hausa fulani sex farmers, though some work in government offices as administrators.

Xxxsax Xxxsaxy Watch Free inurl mt story swinger tb Video Hot Fuvking. Information gather can help as in planning a more robust study on douching and its perceived association with personal hygiene, genital infection and other gynecological and obstetric pathologies not only in pregnancy but prior to or after a woman has delivered. Between 40 and 60 women were usually seen at ANC where pregnancies were not only monitored for any present or impending anomaly but the pregnant women were also screened for high blood pressure, proteinuria and infections such as HIV. In the 3-month period of April and June of , a total of pregnant women consulting for the first time were seen at this ANC and, in addition to the regular clinical examinations, were also screened for bacterial vaginosis. In addition, questionnaires were served to these pregnant women to assess douching practices among this specific ethnic group. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Pregnant woman who presented at the ANC for the first time, were admitted into the study. The tripartite study included i clinical examination ii laboratory investigation for Bacterial vaginosis and iii questionnaire administration to all eligible patients. The study population was pregnant women who agreed to participate in the study and who were residing in Zaria City in Kaduna State, one of the five divisions of the Northwest geo-political zone in Nigeria. The Hausa-Fulani ethnic group, who dominate most parts of these states, are mostly traders, herdsmen and farmers, though some work in government offices as administrators. Each consecutive pregnant woman who were attending their first ANC into the study was recruited into the study. Inclusion criteria were then i attending ANC for the first time ii resides in Zaria and not just visiting iii black indigenous Nigerian iv willing to participate in the study. The exclusion criteria were i those with severe systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure demonstrated kidney diseases ii presence of uterine anomaly and placenta abruption and cervical incompetence iii multiple pregnancy iv antibiotic consumption two weeks prior to study. The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current pregnancy. At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the study, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate. It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them. Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory analysis from each pregnant woman in a private, well-lit and cool consulting room. The structured questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa language and back into English language. Douching practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina. This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study. Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method of douching , Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8. Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing , Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1. Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women. However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically. Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche. Douching may have started early in life while mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age but for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used. It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of African descent in general, by a third of women in the USA [ 34 , 35 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ]. Very few other studies reported douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell. It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients. Plain water is not always free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching was found to be more common. Selfmedication is rampant in Nigeria [ 37 ] and douching may be the first step in home-management of an impending serious vaginal infection prior to clinic attendance. I ate rice in the morning on that day. I was cooking spaghetti for lunch when I became dizzy. But I remember that I was given an injection by nurse Gift when my private part was itching a day before. I had a drug I used to take for toilet infection, so the nurse offered to give me injection. She wanted to give me a second one, but I declined. She gave me the injection on a Tuesday. It was the next day I felt sick and was taken to the hospital. They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. He gives them money after sleeping with them. They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him so he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts. All the girls were all naked including him. Some married men always come too. Sometimes, he shares bags of rice to them. Some of them come from Gwagwa and Nyanya. All I did was to serve them food when they visited. Initially, I was working with a house help, Faith, but he sacked her. The girl lived in Agura. One day, when she was going home, he offered her a lift and she refused to enter his car because the residents see Alhaji as an evil person. Are you aware if Alhaji did anything to Joy the day she slept in his house? But the day she came, I saw her inserting something into her private part, something that looked like a cotton ball. I later learnt that it was nurse Gift that asked her to do a swab for medical test. One Baba was coming to the house and he would write something like Arabic. The first day she slept there was the day she died. Alhaji called her that I was sick and that she should come and take me to the hospital. After she assisted me in the hospital, she was asked to sleep over because it was late. I usually go home around 7pm every day. We were four that slept in the house that night. The house is a three-bedroom apartment. They were very close. Anytime he visited, Alhaji would offer him suya and wine. Sometimes, Alhaji would ask me to fry meat for the DPO. Did Adamu ever attempt to have sex with you? Yes, but I refused. He was telling me to come into his room and I said for what? He said were those entering his room not my mates. I said you called me your daughter, yet you are pestering me for sex..

Each consecutive pregnant woman who were attending their first ANC into the study was recruited into the study. Inclusion criteria were then i attending ANC for the first time ii resides in Zaria and not just visiting iii black indigenous Nigerian iv willing Hausa fulani sex participate in the study.

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The exclusion criteria were i those with severe systemic Hausa fulani sex such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure demonstrated kidney diseases ii presence of uterine anomaly and placenta abruption and cervical incompetence iii multiple pregnancy iv antibiotic consumption two weeks prior to study. The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current pregnancy. At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the study, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate.

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Www.ebony porns.com Watch Desperate amateurs daisy xxx Video Smature sex. Douching practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina. This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study. Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method of douching , Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8. Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing , Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1. Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women. However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically. Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche. Douching may have started early in life while mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age but for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used. It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of African descent in general, by a third of women in the USA [ 34 , 35 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ]. Very few other studies reported douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell. It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients. Plain water is not always free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching was found to be more common. Selfmedication is rampant in Nigeria [ 37 ] and douching may be the first step in home-management of an impending serious vaginal infection prior to clinic attendance. Douching was observed to be less common before than after sexual intercourse, a finding in line with the suggestion that frequent douching is significantly more associated with douching after sex [ 38 ]. This may lend credence to the notion of douching for cleanliness. It is surprising that method of douching also differed by educational status. Douching was observed more among women with no formal education or among those with only primary education. This agrees with other studies that douching is more prevalent among females of low educational [ 15 , 39 ] and socioeconomic status [ 7 ]. However, our result of douching being more prominent in younger age groups was in contrast with what Declemente et al. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in Many studies have associated douching with various adverse reproductive and gynecologic consequences such as bacterial vaginosis, preterm birth, low-birth-weight infants, pelvic inflammatory disease, chlamydial infection, tubal pregnancy, higher rates of HIV transmission, and cervical cancer. The deleterious effects of douching cannot be over-emphasized. Douching was a common practice among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in Nigeria amongst whom the most practice of douching was inserting plain water with fingers followed by insertion of toilet soap and using warm water and disinfectant such as Dettol. Douching seemed to be more associated with personal hygiene than cleaning after menstrual flow. A high proportion of women in this study douche during bathing and after micturition. A sizable proportion also douche after and not before sexual intercourse. Bacterial vaginosis was found more among those who used fingers to insert plain water for douching, especially those aged years and those with no formal education. An aggressive health education, using the print and electronic media, should give health education to women, especially those in early reproductive age group, on the risks associated with douching such as pelvic inflammatory disease PID , endometriosis, ascending and upper genital tract infection, infertility and ectopic pregnancy, among others. A multi-center study on anthropological factors associated with douching is encouraged. Survey of the true prevalence of douching in various cohorts of African women associated with gynecological, obstetric, and other pathological indices should be embarked upon for the health of women and their offspring. This study has some limitations. First, only pregnant women were studied and, in this part of the country, these usually come for their first ANC at later stages of pregnancy. Therefore, conclusions based on our findings are limited to this cohort of women and may not be generalizable to other women who are not pregnant. On December 20, when I was in the kitchen, I felt dizzy and I fell down. He offered to take me to the hospital. I normally close by 7pm. He took me to the Federal Staff Hospital, Jabi. The doctor examined me and said I had malaria. I was given a form which Joy Odama helped me to fill. When we returned home, Alhaji said it was late and that I should sleep over. In the midnight, I wanted to urinate and I saw Joy lying down beside me. Police treat man who killed my daughter like a VIP —Mother. I could only hear noise in the apartment. They rushed me to the hospital, gave me drip and I felt better. It was later I heard that Joy died and I was asking what happened to her. The doctor was also surprised. He asked me if it was the girl that filled my form the night before. Alhaji came to take me home and I also called my sister to come to his place to pick me. It was sometime in January, when Alhaji called me on the phone and said they had buried Joy and that he gave her mother N, He was telling me stupid things before he inquired about my health. He later told me that I would need to make a statement. Alhaji hit me on the back and called me a fool in Hausa. Why do you think the policeman asked you to lie against his neighbour? They wanted me to lie that it was generator fume that made us sick. First, I was the only one and later, I heard that Joy died. When we got to the hospital, Alhaji was saying it was generator fume that made me sick, but the doctor said there was nothing like that. He said I had malaria. Do you remember eating or drinking anything before you, too, became sick? I ate rice in the morning on that day. I was cooking spaghetti for lunch when I became dizzy. But I remember that I was given an injection by nurse Gift when my private part was itching a day before. I had a drug I used to take for toilet infection, so the nurse offered to give me injection. She wanted to give me a second one, but I declined. She gave me the injection on a Tuesday. It was the next day I felt sick and was taken to the hospital. They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. He gives them money after sleeping with them. They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him so he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts. All the girls were all naked including him..

It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them.

Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory Hausa fulani sex from each pregnant woman Hausa fulani sex a private, well-lit and cool consulting room.

The structured questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa language and back into English language.

Douching practices, especially method and time of Hausa fulani sex were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina.

This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then Hausa fulani sex with normal saline and examined under an electric https://woodporn.best/caning/blog-22-12-2019.php with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes.

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Each sample was Hausa fulani sex processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. Source 4 criteria Hausa fulani sex i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly.

Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study.

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Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells Hausa fulani sex The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational Hausa fulani sex, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method continue reading douching Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8.

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Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching lesbian lust Amateur, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1.

Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Hausa fulani sex Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with Hausa fulani sex vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most Hausa fulani sex in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women.

However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also Hausa fulani sex prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite Hausa fulani sex for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically.

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Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche.

Douching Practices among Hausa-Fulani Pregnant Women With and Without Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only times Hausa fulani sex likely to. the Hausa fulani sex Alhaji hit me on the back and called me a fool in Hausa.

Karelia Sex Watch Black mama boobs and hardcore sex Video Angelina joliexxx. The questionnaire focused on douching practices and any adverse event in current pregnancy. At first point of contact at the ANC, the study subjects were briefed about the study, instructed on the importance of coming early to ANC, briefed about the study and encouraged to participate. It was clearly explained to them that they would still enjoy full benefit of ANC should they decide not to participate in the study. The advantages of participating in the study was also clearly explained to them. Only 4 1. Confidentiality was maintained by interviewing, performing clinical examination and collecting specimen for laboratory analysis from each pregnant woman in a private, well-lit and cool consulting room. The structured questionnaire was initially pre-tested and adjusted to fit the respondents. The questionnaire was at first constructed in English language and later translated into Hausa language and back into English language. Douching practices, especially method and time of douching were extracted from the pregnant women. To collect vaginal swabs, a sterile, un-greased speculum was inserted into the vaginal orifice and opened to expose the vaginal canal and the cervix. The pH of vaginal secretion was measured using a pH strip. Thereafter, a dry, sterile cotton on stick was used to collect secretion or substances from the posterior fornix of the vagina. This wet smear of vaginal secretion from the posterior fornix was then mixed with normal saline and examined under an electric microscope with magnification power of x This was to identify i clue cells and ii bacteria morphocytes. Each sample was then processed per Amsel and Nugent criteria and cultured for the offending organisms. These 4 criteria are i thin, white homogenous discharge, ii clue cells on microscopy, iii pH of vaginal fluid greater than 4. Nugent score, the main diagnostic test, approximates comparative quantity of bacteria morphotypes, apportioning scores of between 0 and Data collected was entered into a laptop computer and coded accordingly. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS computer software version Frequency tables were constructed for variables that were categorical. The resulting data were illustrated as Tables and figure. Data confidentiality and patient anonymity and privacy were ensured by coding and by not using the name of any participant in the study. Most of the subjects Only 3. Laboratory analysis of vaginal smear indicated that 32 This age group also had the highest proportion of women with Clue cells present The highest proportions of pregnant women with Clue cells present The Table also illustrates morbidity patterns of study subjects by various educational levels, indicating that the highest proportions of pregnant women with Bacterial vaginosis Using fingers of the hand to insert plain water was the most common method of douching , Using a jet or stream of water was the least prominent method 19, 8. Pregnant women who used fingers to insert plain water for douching 25, The most prevalent time of douching was during bathing , Incidentally, those who douched before sex were only 1. Table 3: Prevalence, method, and time of douching by presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis. Douching practices in terms of method Figure 1 and timeperiod Figure 2 and in terms of presence or absence of Bacterial vaginosis were assessed per age group and educational status, as shown in Table 4. Overall, using fingers to insert plain water was more common in age However, insertion of toilet soap was practiced more in younger age group of Douching before or after sexual intercourse was observed more in age group years Among those with bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water was most prevalent in age group All women aged years Douching after sexual intercourse was noted more in pregnant women aged 39 Figure 1: Figure 2: Table 4: Douching practices by age group and educational status among bacterial vaginosis positive and negative pregnant women. However, among those without Bacterial vaginosis, using finger to insert plain water for douching was also very prominent among those aged Douching during bathing was found more among those in the age group of Figure 3 shows morbidity pattern by age groupings depicting Bacterial vaginosis to be most prevalent among pregnant women aged years but HIV positivity to be highest in age groups It may seem quite natural for women in reproductive age group to douche either regularly or periodically. Whether douching is necessary or not or whether it is a tradition handed down from the past is still contentious. Since the vagina produces secretions at various times and since menstrual flow exit through the vagina, it might seem customary for women to douche. Douching may have started early in life while mothers bathe their newborn females. The exact age when douching starts is not yet established. Foch et al. However, it seems douching probably commences at the time of debutant into sexual activity and continues till older age but for different reasons. One of the possible reasons for douching in younger age may be to wash out semen after sexual intercourse to prevent getting pregnant if condom is not used. It is supposed that pregnancy may be the outcome of a douching failed to prevent it. One of the main findings of this study high prevalence of douching among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group of Northern Nigeria. The Vaginal douching appears to be common especially among Black women of African descent in general, by a third of women in the USA [ 34 , 35 ] as well as in a large proportion of women in Turkey [ 8 ]. Very few other studies reported douching with plain water. Incidentally, bacterial vaginosis was found more among those aged years with no formal education, who used fingers to insert plain water than among any other sub-group. Education is one of the various factors which impact women's douching behaviors, the others being social and cultural influences Cottrell. It is possible that using fingers to insert plain water for douching may have a causal relationship with vaginal infections, such as Bacterial vaginosis observed in the patients. Plain water is not always free from pathogens, neither are hands. This may be the most important singular iatrogenic factor by which pathogens are introduced to the vagina, especially in early age groups between years when douching was found to be more common. Selfmedication is rampant in Nigeria [ 37 ] and douching may be the first step in home-management of an impending serious vaginal infection prior to clinic attendance. Douching was observed to be less common before than after sexual intercourse, a finding in line with the suggestion that frequent douching is significantly more associated with douching after sex [ 38 ]. This may lend credence to the notion of douching for cleanliness. It is surprising that method of douching also differed by educational status. Douching was observed more among women with no formal education or among those with only primary education. This agrees with other studies that douching is more prevalent among females of low educational [ 15 , 39 ] and socioeconomic status [ 7 ]. However, our result of douching being more prominent in younger age groups was in contrast with what Declemente et al. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in Many studies have associated douching with various adverse reproductive and gynecologic consequences such as bacterial vaginosis, preterm birth, low-birth-weight infants, pelvic inflammatory disease, chlamydial infection, tubal pregnancy, higher rates of HIV transmission, and cervical cancer. The deleterious effects of douching cannot be over-emphasized. Douching was a common practice among the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in Nigeria amongst whom the most practice of douching was inserting plain water with fingers followed by insertion of toilet soap and using warm water and disinfectant such as Dettol. Douching seemed to be more associated with personal hygiene than cleaning after menstrual flow. A high proportion of women in this study douche during bathing and after micturition. The doctor examined me and said I had malaria. I was given a form which Joy Odama helped me to fill. When we returned home, Alhaji said it was late and that I should sleep over. In the midnight, I wanted to urinate and I saw Joy lying down beside me. Police treat man who killed my daughter like a VIP —Mother. I could only hear noise in the apartment. They rushed me to the hospital, gave me drip and I felt better. It was later I heard that Joy died and I was asking what happened to her. The doctor was also surprised. He asked me if it was the girl that filled my form the night before. Alhaji came to take me home and I also called my sister to come to his place to pick me. It was sometime in January, when Alhaji called me on the phone and said they had buried Joy and that he gave her mother N, He was telling me stupid things before he inquired about my health. He later told me that I would need to make a statement. Alhaji hit me on the back and called me a fool in Hausa. Why do you think the policeman asked you to lie against his neighbour? They wanted me to lie that it was generator fume that made us sick. First, I was the only one and later, I heard that Joy died. When we got to the hospital, Alhaji was saying it was generator fume that made me sick, but the doctor said there was nothing like that. He said I had malaria. Do you remember eating or drinking anything before you, too, became sick? I ate rice in the morning on that day. I was cooking spaghetti for lunch when I became dizzy. But I remember that I was given an injection by nurse Gift when my private part was itching a day before. I had a drug I used to take for toilet infection, so the nurse offered to give me injection. She wanted to give me a second one, but I declined. She gave me the injection on a Tuesday. It was the next day I felt sick and was taken to the hospital. They were nurse Gift and small Gift, Martha and Joy. Many girls used to come there. They come for sex with him. He gives them money after sleeping with them. They would enter his bedroom and lock the door. There was a certain day he asked me to boil water for him so he could take his bath. I mistakenly opened the door and he was sucking their private parts. All the girls were all naked including him. Some married men always come too. Sometimes, he shares bags of rice to them. Some of them come from Gwagwa and Nyanya. All I did was to serve them food when they visited..

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